The left hemisphere was predominantly activated in females' brains, whereas there was bilateral activation in males' brains. 56 Aggression edit see also: Aggression Gender, aggression Testosterone, and Gender and crime Although research on sex differences in aggression show that males are generally more likely to display aggression than females, how much of this is interests due to social factors and gender expectations. Aggression is closely linked with cultural definitions of "masculine" and "feminine". In some situations, women show equal or more aggression than men, although less physical; for example, women are more likely to use direct aggression in private, where other people cannot see them, and are more likely to use indirect aggression in public. 57 Men are more likely to be the targets of displays of aggression and provocation than females. Studies by bettencourt and Miller show that when provocation is controlled for, sex differences in aggression are greatly reduced. They argue that this shows that gender-role norms play a large part in the differences in aggressive behavior between men and women.
54 clarification needed a study examining sex differences in performance on the california verbal learning Test found that males performed better on Digit Span Backwards and on reaction time, while females were better on short-term memory recall and Symbol-Digit Modalities Test. 46 Females have also demonstrated to have better verbal memory. 52 A study was conducted to explore regions within the brain that are activated during working writing memory tasks in males versus females. Four different tasks of increasing difficulty were given to 9 males and 8 females. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure brain activity. The lateral prefrontal cortices, the parietal cortices and caudates were activated in both genders. 56 With more difficult tasks, more brain tissue was activated.
49 There are however also differences in the capacity of males and females in performing certain tasks, such as rotation of objects in space, often categorized as spatial ability. Other traditionally male advantages, such as in the field of mathematics are less clear. 28 Although females have lesser performance in spatial abilities, they have better performance in processing speed involving letters, digits and rapid naming tasks, 51 object location memory, verbal memory, 52 and also verbal learning. 53 Memory edit see also: Sex differences in human memory The results from research on sex differences in memory are mixed and inconsistent, with some studies showing no difference, and others showing a female or male advantage. 54 Most studies have found no sex differences in short term memory, the rate of memory decline due to aging, or memory of visual stimuli. 54 Females have been found to have an advantage in recalling auditory and olfactory stimuli, experiences, faces, names, and the location of objects in space. 54 55 However, males show an advantage in recalling "masculine" events.
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Studies have shown either no differences, or advantages for both sexes, with most showing a slight advantage for males. 43 44 dubious discuss biography One study did find some advantage for women in later life, 45 while another found that male advantages on some cognitive tests are minimized when controlling for socioeconomic factors. 46 The differences in average iq between women and men are small in magnitude and inconsistent in direction, 24 47 although the variability of male scores has been found to be greater than that of females, resulting in more males than females in the top. 48 According to the 1995 report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns by the American Psychological Association, "Most standard tests of intelligence have been constructed so that there are no overall score differences between females and males." 24 Arthur Jensen in 1998 conducted studies on sex differences. His conclusions he"d were "no evidence was found for sex differences in the mean level. Males, on average, excel on some factors; females on others". Jensens results that no overall sex differences existed for g has been strengthened by researchers who assessed this issue with a battery of 42 mental ability tests and found no overall sex difference.
49 Although most of the tests showed no difference, there were some that did. For example, they found females performed better on verbal abilities while males performed better on visuospatial abilities. 49 One female advantage is in verbal fluency where they have been found to perform better in vocabulary, reading comprehension, speech production and essay writing. 50 Males have been specifically found to perform better on spatial visualization, spatial perception, and mental rotation. 50 Researchers had then recommended that general models such as fluid and crystallized intelligence be divided into verbal, perceptual and visuospatial domains of g, because when this model is applied then females excel at verbal and perceptual tasks while males on visuospatial tasks.
In addition, this theory predicts that women's economic dependence on men in a male-dominated society will tend to cause women to approve of sex more in committed relationships providing economic security, and less so in casual relationships. 38 A sociobiological approach applies evolutionary biology to human sexuality, emphasizing reproductive success in shaping patterns of sexual behavior. According to sociobiologists, since women's parental investment in reproduction is greater than men's, owing to human sperm being much more plentiful than eggs, and the fact that women must devote considerable energy to gestating their offspring, women will tend to be much more selective. It may not be possible to accurately test sociobiological theories in relation to promiscuity and casual sex in contemporary (U.S.) society, which is quite different from the ancestral human societies in which most natural selection for sexual traits has occurred. 38 According to social learning theory, sexuality is influenced by people's social environment.
This theory suggests that sexual attitudes and behaviors are learned through observation of role models such as parents and media figures, as well as through positive or negative reinforcements for behaviors that match or defy established gender roles. It predicts that gender differences in sexuality can change over time as a function of changing social norms, and also that a societal double standard in punishing women more severely than men (who may in fact be rewarded) for engaging in promiscuous or casual sex. 38 Such a societal double-standard also figures in social role theory, which suggests that sexual attitudes and behaviors are shaped by the roles that men and women are expected to fill in society, and script theory, which focuses on the symbolic meaning of behaviors; this. 38 The sexual Strategies Theory by david Buss and david. Schmitt is an evolutionary psychology theory regarding female and male short-term and long-term mating strategies which they argued are dependent on several different goals and vary depending on the environment. Has argued that other empirical evidence support smaller or non-existing gender differences and social theories such as stigma, socialization, and double standards. 42 third-party source needed Intelligence edit main article: Sex differences in intelligence with the advent of the concept of g, or general intelligence, some form of empirically measuring differences in intelligence, was possible, but results have been inconsistent.
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26 27 One study also claimed that one-day-old girls gaze longer at a face, whereas suspended mechanical mobiles, rather than a face, keep boys' attention for longer, though this study has been criticized as having methodological flaws. 28 clarification needed a later study was unable to replicate the results in the same context. 29 Research oliver has shown that when male-typical toys are labeled as female-appropriate, young girls become significantly more likely to play with them. 30 Certain studies have concluded that many end up treating infants and toddlers differently based on their assumed gender, even if boys and girls express the same behavior. Children raised by lesbian mothers were reported by the parents to be more androgynous in personality, suggesting that, if the reporting is accurate, upbringing could influence certain gendered traits. 34 Human-like play preferences have also been observed strange in guenon 35 and rhesus macaques, 36 though the co-author of the latter study warned about over-interpreting the data. 37 Sexual behavior edit see also: Sexual desire Sex differences, physical attractiveness, sexual selection, sexual conflict, bateman's principle, concealed ovulation, sperm competition, and Sexual jealousy in humans Psychological theories exist regarding the development and expression of gender differences in human sexuality. A number of these theories are consistent in predicting that men should be more approving of casual sex (sex happening outside a stable, committed relationship such as marriage) and should also be more promiscuous (have a higher number of sexual partners) than women: 38 neoanalytic. According to feminist psychoanalytic theorist Nancy Chodorow, girls tend to preserve this attachment throughout life and define their identities in relational terms, whereas boys must reject this maternal attachment in order to develop a masculine identity.
19 A study of thirteen-month-old children supported the theory that males and females typically prefer toys typed to their gender, but instead found females showing more variance instead of males. 20 An additional study found that a gendered divide in regards to toys may express itself as early as nine-months of age. 21 Despite these apparent differences, a study of toddlers showed that both boys and girls were equally active when playing, and both sexes preferred toys that allowed them to express this. 22 The specific cause of this sex difference has also been investigated. A study with 112 boys and 100 girls found that the difference in play behavior appeared like to be semi-correlated with fetal testosterone. 23 Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and thus exposed to high androgen levels during pregnancy tend to play more with male-typical toys and less with female-typical ones. 24 25 needs update however, some have argued that the characteristics of the condition itself could also result in those girls preferring different types of toys.
According to his and his parents' accounts, the gender reassignment has caused severe mental problems throughout his life. At the age of 38, reimer committed suicide. Some individuals hold a different gender identity than that assigned at birth according to their sex, and are referred to as transgender. These cases often involve significant gender dysphoria similar to the experience of david reimer. How these identities are formed is unknown, although some studies have suggested that male-to-female transgenderism is related to androgen levels during fetal development. 18 Childhood play edit see also: Gender roles in childhood Many different studies have been conducted on sex differences in the play behavior of young children, often yielding conflicting results. One study conducted on nineteen-month-old children revealed a male preference for stereotypically "masculine" toys, and a female preference for stereotypically "feminine" toys, with males showing more variance in play behavior.
On the Origin of Species Charles Darwin proposed that, like physical traits, psychological traits evolve through the process of sexual selection : In the distant future i see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. — Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, 1859,. Two of his later books, The descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to sex (1871) and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) explore the subject of psychological differences between the sexes. The descent of Man and Selection in Relation to sex includes 70 pages on sexual selection in human evolution, some of which concerns psychological traits. 14 Psychological traits edit development of gender identity edit main articles: Gender identity and causes of transsexuality Individuals who are sex reassigned at birth offer an opportunity to see what happens when help a child who is genetically one sex is raised as the other. An infamous sexual reassignment case was that of david reimer. Reimer was born biologically as a male but was raised as a female following medical advice after an operation that destroyed his genitalia.
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Sex differences in psychology are differences in the paper mental functions and behaviors of the sexes, and are due to a complex interplay of biological, developmental, and cultural factors. Differences have been found in a variety of fields such as mental health, cognitive abilities, personality, and tendency towards aggression. Such variation may be both innate or learned and is often very difficult to distinguish. Modern research attempts to distinguish between such differences, and to analyze any ethical concerns raised. Since behavior is a result of interactions between nature and nurture researchers are interested in investigating how biology and environment interact to produce such differences, 1 2 3 although this is often not possible. 4, a number of factors combine to influence the development of sex differences, including genetics and epigenetics; 5 differences in brain structure and function; 6 hormones; 7 or differences in psychological traits such as emotion, motivation, cognition, and sexuality., differences in socialization of males and. 1 2 11, contents, history edit, beliefs about sex differences have likely existed throughout history. 13, in his 1859 book.