As the kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new sikh rulers. 46 However, the sikh governors turned out to be hard taskmasters, and sikh rule was generally considered oppressive, 47 protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the sikh Empire in Lahore. 48 The sikhs enacted a number of anti-muslim laws, 48 which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter, 46 closing down the jamia masjid in Srinagar, plan 48 and banning the a dhan, the public Muslim call to prayer. 48 Kashmir had also now begun to attract European visitors, several of whom wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the sikhs. 46 49 High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixteenth of the cultivable land to be cultivated. 46 Many kashmiri peasants migrated to the plains of the punjab. 50 However, after a famine in 1832, the sikhs reduced the land tax to half the produce of the land and also began to offer interest-free loans to farmers; 48 Kashmir became the second highest revenue earner for the sikh Empire.
Shah Mir was the first ruler of trunk Shah Mir dynasty, which had established in 1339. Muslim ulama, such as Mir sayyid Ali hamadani, arrived from Central Asia to proselytize in Kashmir and their efforts converted thousands of Kashmiris to Islam 41 and Hamadani's son also convinced sikander Butshikan to enforce Islamic law. By the late 1400s most Kashmiris had accepted Islam. 42 Mughal rule edit The mughal padishah (emperor) Akbar conquered Kashmir, taking advantage of Kashmir's internal Sunni-Shia divisions, 43 and thus ended indigenous Kashmiri muslim rule. 6 Akbar added it in 1586 to kabul Subah, but Shah Jahan carved it out as a separate subah (imperial top-level province) with seat at Srinagar. Afghan rule edit The Afghan Durrani dynasty 's Durrani Empire controlled Kashmir from 1751, when weakling 15th Mughal padshah (emperor) Ahmad Shah Bahadur 's viceroy muin-ul-Mulk was defeated and reinstated by the durrani founder Ahmad Shah Durrani (who conquered, roughly, modern day afghanistan and pakistan. The Afghan rulers brutally repressed Kashmiris of all faiths (according to kashmiri historians). 44 sikh rule edit In 1819, the kashmir Valley passed from the control of the durrani Empire of Afghanistan to the conquering armies of the sikhs under Ranjit Singh of the punjab, 45 thus ending four centuries of Muslim rule under the mughals and the.
Shāh Mīr arrived in Kashmir in 1313, along with his family, during the reign of Sūhadeva (130120 whose service he entered. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability, shāh Mīr rose to prominence and became one of the important personalities of the time. Later, after the death in 1338 of Udayanadeva, the brother of Sūhadeva, he was able to assume the kingship himself and thus laid the foundation of permanent Muslim rule in Kashmir. Dissensions among the ruling classes and foreign invasions were the two main factors which contributed towards the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir. 40 Rinchan, from Ladakh, and Lankar Chak, from Dard territory near Gilgit, came to kashmir and played a notable role in the subsequent political history of the valley. All the three men were granted Jagirs (feudatory estates) by the king. Rinchan became the ruler of Kashmir for three years.
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30 In the 10th century mokshopaya or moksopaya shastra, a philosophical text on salvation for non-ascetics ( moksa-upaya : 'means to release was written on the Pradyumna hill in Srinagar. 31 32 It has the form of a public sermon and claims human authorship and contains about 30,000 shloka 's (making it longer than the ramayana ). The main part of the text forms a dialogue between Vashistha and Rama, interchanged with numerous short stories and anecdotes to illustrate the content. 33 34 This text was later (11th to the 14th century ce) 35 expanded and vedanticised, which resulted in the yoga vasistha. 36 queen Kota rani was medieval Hindu ruler of Kashmir, ruling until 1339. She was a notable ruler who is often credited for saving Srinagar city from frequent floods by getting a canal constructed, named after her " Kutte kol ".
This canal receives water from Jhelum river at the entry point of city and again merges with Jhelum river beyond the city limits. 37 Shah treat Mir Dynasty edit gateway of enclosure, (once a hindu temple) of zein-ul-ab-ud-din's Tomb, in Srinagar. Probable date 400 to 5John Burke. Oriental and India office collection. Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir (reigned 133942) was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir 38 and founder of the Shah Mir dynasty. 38 39 Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, in his horror dvitīyā rājataraginī mentioned Shah Mir was from Swat, and his ancestors were Kshatriya, who converted to Islam.
The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir as a power in south Asia. 18 avanti varman ascended the throne of Kashmir on 855 ce, establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkoṭa dynasty. 19 According to tradition, Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha ( Sharada peeth ) in Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century. The madhaviya shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door of Sarvajna pitha was opened by Adi Shankara.
20 According to tradition, Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mīmāṃsā, vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy ; he ascended the throne of Transcendent wisdom of that temple. 9501020 ce 22 23 ) was one of India's greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. He was also considered an important musician, poet, dramatist, exegete, theologian, and logician 24 25 a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture. 26 27 he was born in the kashmir Valley 28 in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen (or more) teachers and gurus. 29 In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of which is Tantrāloka, an encyclopaedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and kaula (known today as Kashmir Shaivism ). Another one of his very important contributions was in the field of philosophy of aesthetics with his famous Abhinavabhāratī commentary of Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata muni.
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15 As a buddhist seat of learning, the sarvastivada school strongly influenced Kashmir. 16 East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. In the late 4th century ce, the famous Kuchanese monk kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta. He later became a prolific translator who helped take buddhism to China. His mother jīva is thought to have retired to kashmir. Vimalākṣa, a sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to kucha and there instructed Kumārajīva in the vinayapiṭaka. Karkoṭa essay Empire (625 ce 885 CE) was a powerful Hindu empire, which originated in the region of Kashmir. 17 It was founded by durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harsha.
13 Cashmere is an archaic spelling of present-Kashmir, and use in some countries it is still spelled this way. In the kashmiri language, kashmir itself is known as Kasheer. 14 History edit main article: History of Kashmir Further information: Timeline of the kashmir conflict and Kashmir conflict Hinduism and Buddhism in Kashmir edit further information: Buddhism in Kashmir and Kashmir Shaivism This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist stupa near Baramulla, with two figures. The stupa, which was later excavated, dates to 500. During ancient and medieval period, kashmir has been an important centre for the development of a hindu-buddhist syncretism, in which Madhyamaka and Yogachara were blended with Shaivism and Advaita vedanta. The buddhist mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, Shrinagari, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar. Kashmir was long to be a stronghold of Buddhism.
and China, numerous border skirmishes, high mountainous warfare, an ongoing insurgency, a hindu exodus and internal civilian. 8 Contents Etymology edit The sanskrit word for Kashmir was káśmīra. 9 The nilamata purana describes the valley's origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras. 10 11 A popular, but uncertain, local etymology of Kashmira is that it is land desiccated from water. 12 An alternative, but also uncertain, etymology derives the name from the name of the sage kashyapa who is believed to have settled people in this land. Accordingly, kashmir would be derived from either kashyapa-mir (Kashyapa's lake) or kashyapa-meru (Kashyapa's mountain). 12 The Ancient Greeks called the region Kasperia which has been identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus of Miletus (apud Stephanus of byzantium ) and Kaspatyros of Herodotus (3.102,.44). Kashmir is also believed to be the country meant by Ptolemy 's Kaspeiria.
Azad Kashmir and, gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of, aksai chin and the. 3, in the first half of the 1st millennium, the kashmir region became an important centre. Hinduism and later of, buddhism ; later still, in the ninth century, kashmir Shaivism arose. 4 In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the salatin-i-kashmir or Shah Mir dynasty. 5 Kashmir was part of the mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751, 6 and thereafter, until good 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire. 5 That year, the sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. 5 In 1846, after the sikh defeat in the first Anglo-sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the raja of Jammu, gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until the partition of India in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Raj was claimed by both pakistan and India. Since 1947, the greater region of Jammu and Kashmir has been embroiled in a territorial dispute between India, pakistan and China — with India controlling approximately 43 of the land area of the region and 70 of its population.
Essay the kashmir Conflict - india, pakistan, war
For other uses, see, kashmir (disambiguation). Political map: the kashmir region districts, showing the. Pir Panjal range and the, kashmir valley or, vale of Kashmir. Nanga parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the himalayas. The, karakash river (Black jade river) which flows north from its source near the town of Sumde in Aksai chin, to cross the, kunlun mountains, kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the, kashmir Valley between the, great Himalayas and the, pir Panjal Range. Today, it homework denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory. Jammu and Kashmir (which includes the region of, jammu, kashmir Valley, ladakh and, siachen the pakistani-administered territories.